How could we protect bone and mass on a low-calorie weight loss plan?
One of the vital constant advantages of calorie restriction is that blood strain improves in as little as one or two weeks. Blood strain could even be normalized in a matter of weeks and blood strain tablets discontinued. Sadly, this may work slightly too properly and cause orthostatic intolerance, which may manifest as lightheadedness or dizziness upon standing and, in extreme instances, could trigger fainting, although staying hydrated will help.
What about lack of muscle mass? Within the CALERIE trial, which I profile in my video Potential Pitfalls of Calorie Restriction, 70 % of the physique weight the themes lost was fats and 30 % was lean physique mass. So, they ended up with an improved physique composition of about 72 % lean mass in comparison with 66 % within the management group, as you possibly can see at 0:51 in my video. And, although leg muscle mass and power declined in absolute phrases, relative to their new physique dimension, they typically acquired stronger.
Is there any option to preserve much more lean mass, notably amongst older people who naturally are likely to lose muscle mass with age? Elevated protein intakes are generally prompt, however most research fail to discover a useful impact on preserving muscle power or operate whether or not you’re younger or outdated, energetic or sedentary. For instance, throughout a 25 % calorie restriction, researchers randomized chubby older women and men to both a normal-protein weight loss plan with four grams for each ten kilos of physique weight or a high-protein weight loss plan with about eight grams per ten kilos. That doubling of protein consumption had no discernible impact on lean physique mass, muscle power, or bodily efficiency. As you possibly can see under and at 1:48 in my video, most such research found the identical lack of profit, however after they’re all put collectively, one can tease out a small benefit of about one or two kilos of lean mass over a mean of six months.
Sadly, excessive protein consumption throughout weight reduction has additionally been found to have “profound” detrimental metabolic results, together with undermining the advantages of weight reduction on insulin sensitivity. As you possibly can see within the graph under and at 2:14 in my video, in the event you lose 20 kilos, you possibly can dramatically enhance your physique’s capability to deal with blood sugars, in comparison with topics in a management group who maintained their weight. However, in the event you lose the very same quantity of weight on a high-protein weight loss plan, getting about an additional 30 grams a day, it’s such as you by no means misplaced any weight in any respect.
Although you possibly can at all times bulk again up after weight reduction, one of the simplest ways to protect muscle mass throughout weight reduction is to train. The CALERIE research had no structured exercise part, and, just like bariatric surgical procedure, about 30 % of the load loss was lean mass. In distinction, that proportion was solely about 16 % of The Greatest Loser contestants, chalked as much as their “vigorous train program.” Resistance coaching even simply 3 times every week can prevent greater than 90 % of lean physique mass loss throughout calorie restriction.
The identical could also be true of bone loss. Drop some weight via calorie restriction alone, and also you experience a decline in bone mineral density in fracture threat websites, such because the hip and backbone. In the identical research, although, these randomized to shed weight with train didn’t undergo any bone loss. The researchers concluded: “Our outcomes recommend that common EX [exercise] needs to be included as a part of a complete weight reduction program to offset the opposed results of CR [caloric restriction] on bone.”
It’s arduous to argue with requires elevated bodily exercise, however even with out an train routine, the “very small” drop in bone mineral density within the CALERIE trial may solely increase a ten-year threat of osteoporotic fracture by about 0.2 %. The advantages of calorie restriction revealed by the research included enhancements in blood strain and ldl cholesterol, as you possibly can see within the graph under and at 3:54 in my video, in addition to improved temper, libido, and sleep. These would appear to far outweigh any potential dangers. The truth that a discount in energy appeared to have such wide-ranging advantages on high quality of life led commentators within the AMA’s inside medication journal to put in writing: “The findings of this well-designed research recommend that consumption of extra energy shouldn’t be solely a burden to our bodily homeostasis [or equilibrium], but additionally on our psychological well-being.”
Try my different movies on calorie restriction, fasting, intermittent fasting, and time-restricted consuming within the associated movies under.